Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (2023)

What is yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus.

Most people infected with yellow fever virus do not get sick or have only mild symptoms. People who do get sick will start having symptoms (e.g., fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches) 3–6 days after they are infected. About 12% of people who have symptoms go on to develop serious illness: jaundice, bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.

How does yellow fever spread?

Yellow fever virus is spread by mosquitoes.

(Video) What Is Yellow Fever? Passport Health Explains

Who is at risk?

Yellow fever virus, and the mosquitoes that spread the virus, are found in certain parts of South America and Africa. Travelers going to these places are at risk for infection with the virus. Check to see if yellow fever vaccine is recommended or required for your destination.

Yellow fever vaccine recommendations in Africa1

Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (1)

PDF Version (printable)

1 Current as of August 2018. This map is an updated version of the 2010 map created by the Informal WHO Working Group on the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever.

2 Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travelers to these areas who are at increased risk for exposure to YF virus because of prolonged travel, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. Consideration for vaccination of any traveler must take into account the traveler’s risk of being infected with YF virus, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-associated adverse events (e.g., age, immune status).

Yellow fever vaccine recommendations in the Americas1

(Video) Yellow Fever, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (2)

PDF Version (printable)

1 Current as of August 2018. This map is an updated version of the 2010 map created by the Informal WHO Working Group on the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever.

2 In 2017, CDC expanded yellow fever vaccination recommendations for travelers to Brazil because of a large outbreak of yellow fever in multiple states in that country. Please refer to the CDC Travelers’ Health website (www.cdc.gov/travel) for more information and updated recommendations.

3 Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travelers to these areas who are at increased risk for exposure to YF virus because of prolonged travel, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. Consideration for vaccination of any traveler must take into account the traveler’s risk of being infected with YF virus, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-associated adverse events (such as age or immune status).

What can travelers do to protect themselves?

Get the yellow fever vaccine and take steps to prevent mosquito bites.

Yellow Fever Vaccine: Requirements and Recommendations

Some countries may require arriving travelers to show proof of yellow fever vaccination. Countries do this as a public health measure to keep travelers from importing the virus. Proof of vaccination requirements may apply to some or all arriving travelers. CDC has no control over other countries’ vaccine requirements or how they are enforced.

Separate from the individual country requirements, CDC makes yellow fever vaccine recommendations for travelers going to countries where there is a risk of yellow fever. CDC recommendations are designed to help keep individuals from getting infected with yellow fever virus during travel.

Check your destination(s) for yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations.

Yellow Fever Vaccine: Getting Vaccinated

Visit a yellow fever vaccination clinic. Ask the health care provider at the clinic to confirm if vaccination against yellow fever is required and/or recommended for your destination(s).

(Video) YELLOW FEVER VACCINATION CARD INFORMATION 2022 FOR AFRICA TRAVEL.

Plan to get the vaccine at least 10 days before your travel since proof of vaccination is not valid until 10 days after getting the vaccine, the time needed to develop immunity to yellow fever virus.

A single dose of yellow fever vaccine protects most people for life, but a booster dose after 10 years may be recommended for some travelers. Talk to your health care provider for more information.

In rare cases, yellow fever vaccine can have serious and sometimes fatal side effects. People older than 60 years and people with weakened immune systems might be at higher risk of developing these side effects. Also, there are concerns for the babies of pregnant and nursing women who receive yellow fever vaccine. Before you get vaccinated against yellow fever, discuss your full medical history with your health care provider who can help inform you about the possible risks involved.

Yellow Fever Vaccine: Proof of Vaccination

The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP, sometimes called the “yellow card”) is your proof that you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. You will receive the ICVP when you get vaccinated. Along with your passport, present the original signed and stamped ICVP (not a photocopy or screenshot) to immigration officials in all countries requiring proof of vaccination.

Prevent mosquito bites:

Use an EPA-registered insect repellent

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  • Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents with one of the active ingredients below. When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women. If also using sunscreen, always apply insect repellent after sunscreen.
    • DEET
    • Picaridin (known as KBR 3023 and icaridin outside the US)
    • IR3535
    • Oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE)
    • Para-menthane-diol (PMD)
    • 2-undecanone

Find the right insect repellent for you by using EPA's search tool.

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  • Insect Repellent Tips for Babies and Children
    • Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs.
    • Cover strollers and baby carriers with mosquito netting.
    • When using insect repellent on your child:
      • Always follow label instructions.
      • Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD) on children under 3 years old.
      • Do not apply insect repellent to a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, cuts, or irritated skin.
        • Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.
      • If also using sunscreen, always apply insect repellent after sunscreen.

Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants

Treat clothing and gear with permethrin

Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (5)

(Video) “Case Studies in Travel Medicine - with a Focus on YELLOW FEVER” by Keith Armitage, MD, MACP

  • Use 0.5% permethrin to treatclothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents) orbuy permethrin-treated clothing and gear.
    • Permethrin is an insecticide that kills or repels insects like mosquitoes and sand flies.
    • Permethrin-treated clothing provides protection after multiple washings.
    • Read product information to find out how long the protection will last.
  • If treating items yourself, follow the product instructions.
  • Do not use permethrin products directly on skin.
  • Watch the CDC video How to UsePermethrin.

Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging

  • Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or window and door screens.
  • Use a mosquito net if you are unable to stay in a place with air conditioning or window and door screens or if you are sleeping outside.

Sleep under a mosquito net

Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (6)

  • Sleep under a mosquito net if you are outside or when screened rooms are not available. Mosquitoes can live indoors and bite during the day and night.
  • Buy a mosquito net at your local outdoor store or online before traveling overseas.
  • Choose a mosquito net that is compact, white, rectangular, with 156 holes per square inch, and long enough to tuck under the mattress.
  • Permethrin-treated mosquito nets provide more protection than untreated nets.
    • Permethrin is an insecticide that kills mosquitoes and other insects.
    • To determine if you can wash a treated mosquito net, follow the label instructions.

If you are bitten by mosquitoes, avoid scratching the bites and apply over-the-counter anti-itch or antihistamine cream to relieve itching. See Mosquito Bite Symptoms and Treatment.

If you are bitten by mosquitoes:

  • Avoid scratching mosquito bites.
  • Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching.

After Travel

Yellow Fever | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health (7)

If you traveled and feel sick, particularly if you have a fever, talk to a healthcare provider and tell them about your travel.

(Video) Yellow Fever – an introduction en

If you need medical care abroad, see Getting Health Care During Travel.

More Information

  • FAQ’s about Yellow Fever
  • Avoid Bug Bites-Information for travelers
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Recommendations, by Country
  • Authorized U.S. Yellow Fever Vaccine Centers
  • CDC Yellow Book: Yellow Fever

FAQs

How do I get proof of yellow fever vaccine? ›

Yellow fever vaccination certificate

You'll be given a certificate when you're vaccinated at a yellow fever vaccination centre. Check the country information on the TravelHealthPro website or with a yellow fever vaccination centre to see if you need a certificate for the area you're visiting.

What do I do if I lost my yellow fever certificate? ›

The issuing vaccinating centre that gave you the original certificate may be able to provide you with a another copy. If you do not have a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate, you risk being refused entry into many countries, or may require vaccination upon entry.

Do I need to renew my yellow fever vaccination? ›

One dose of yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection in most people. A booster dose would only be recommended if you were previously vaccinated in one of the following circumstances: while pregnant. less than two years old.

What are 3/5 main symptoms of a patient with yellow fever? ›

Common symptoms include:
  • headaches.
  • muscle aches.
  • joint aches.
  • a fever.
  • flushing.
  • a loss of appetite.
  • shivers.
  • backaches.

How do I get my immunization certificate? ›

To apply for a Travel certificate, you need to create a verified nidirect account. Parents and guardians can apply through their nidirect account, for Vaccination certificates for young people up to the age of 17. You will need to upload a photo of the young person's passport as part of the validation process.

Can you get the yellow fever vaccine at the airport? ›

MINISTRY OF HEALTH – REPUBLIC OF KENYA

You can get your yellow fever vaccine at the port health clinics located within all Kenyan airports at a cost of Ksh 3500. It is recommended that you get your vaccination 10 days before you travel.

How long is your yellow fever vaccination valid? ›

A single dose provides lifelong protection for most people. The vaccine is a live, weakened form of the virus given as a single shot. Vaccine is recommended for people aged 9 months or older and who are traveling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever virus in Africa and South America.

How much does yellow fever card cost? ›

If you need a yellow fever vaccine waiver, or if you need an ICVP (yellow card) reissued for a yellow fever vaccine that was not given by Campus Health, and you are not otherwise utilizing our travel clinic, there is a $20 charge. This charge is not billed to insurance and will be your responsibility to pay.

How long is yellow fever good for? ›

For most people, a single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and a booster dose of the vaccine is not needed. However, travelers going to areas with ongoing outbreaks may consider getting a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine if it has been 10 years or more since they were last vaccinated.

Why can't over 60 have yellow fever vaccine? ›

People aged 60 years or older should not be given the vaccine due to a higher risk of life-threatening side effects if the vaccine is generally not recommended at their destination (i.e areas described as having low potential for yellow fever virus exposure) [3, 4].

What countries require you to have a yellow fever vaccine? ›

The yellow fever virus is a disease that's transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
...
Some key countries that require proof of yellow fever vaccination include:
  • Angola.
  • Burundi.
  • Cameroon.
  • Central African Republic.
  • Republic of Congo.
  • Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • French Guiana.
16 Dec 2021

What happens when my vaccination status expires? ›

There will not be a “Valid till” date. Vaccination status will turn grey, and show 'Additional dose needed'. To restore your 'Vaccinated' status, you need to take a booster.

What organ system does yellow fever affect? ›

High fever returns and several body systems are affected, usually the liver and the kidneys. In this phase people are likely to develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes, hence the name 'yellow fever'), dark urine and abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach.

What are the 3 stages of yellow fever? ›

Yellow fever has 3 stages:
  • Stage 1 (infection): Headache, muscle and joint aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. ...
  • Stage 2 (remission): Fever and other symptoms go away. ...
  • Stage 3 (intoxication): Problems with many organs may occur, including the heart, liver, and kidney.

Can yellow fever be passed from person to person? ›

How is yellow fever spread? Yellow fever is spread by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A mosquito becomes infected when it bites a person who has yellow fever in his or her blood. Direct spread of yellow fever from one person to another does not occur.

How long before I travel do I need yellow fever vaccine? ›

Yellow fever vaccination

You need to have the vaccine at least 10 days before travelling to give it enough time to work. Your certificate will only be valid after this time. If you or your child has had the MMR vaccine, you or they ideally need to wait at least 4 weeks before having the yellow fever vaccine.

Can you enter country without yellow fever vaccine? ›

If you have travelled through a yellow fever risk country, and you do not have a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate, you risk being refused entry into many countries or may be required to be vaccinated upon arrival.

Are travel vaccines free? ›

Not all travel vaccinations are available free on the NHS, even if they're recommended for travel to a certain area. If the GP practice is signed up to provide NHS travel vaccines, these can be provided to you free of charge. Other non-NHS travel vaccines may be charged for by the GP.

How long after my vaccine can I travel? ›

Be aware that some countries are requesting evidence that you completed your COVID-19 vaccine course at least 14 days before arriving in their country. They may also require evidence of a booster dose depending on how long ago you completed your COVID-19 vaccine course.

How many shots is the yellow fever vaccine? ›

Yellow fever vaccine is a live vaccine containing weakened, live yellow fever virus. It is given as a single shot. One dose provides lifelong protection for most people.

Does yellow fever vaccine make you sick? ›

Reactions to yellow fever vaccine are generally mild and include headaches, muscle aches, and low-grade fevers. Rarely, people develop severe, sometimes life-threatening reactions to the yellow fever vaccine, including: Allergic reaction, including difficulty breathing or swallowing (anaphylaxis)

Is yellow card free? ›

Yellow Card is the easiest way to buy and sell Bitcoin, Ethereum and Tether instantly at the best rates with zero fees.

Who is exempt from yellow fever vaccination? ›

If you are aged 60 years or older and are travelling to countries where there is a low potential for exposure to yellow fever you should not have yellow fever vaccine . In these instances, due to a higher risk of life-threatening side effects in this age group, yellow fever vaccine is not recommended.

What is yellow fever card? ›

Yellow Fever Vaccine: Proof of Vaccination

The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP, sometimes called the “yellow card”) is your proof that you have been vaccinated against yellow fever. You will receive the ICVP when you get vaccinated.

Can you catch yellow fever twice? ›

After having it once, a person is generally immune, meaning that they are unlikely to have it again. Yellow fever can occur in settlements close to the jungle, where infected monkeys and mosquitoes live, and it can spread from there.

Is yellow fever a lifelong condition? ›

The Illness

Infection with yellow fever results in lifelong natural immunity in individuals who recover. A small proportion of those infected with yellow fever will develop severe disease.

Is yellow fever still around in 2022? ›

Description of outbreaks

Of these nine countries, six continue to report confirmed cases of yellow fever with ongoing transmission in 2022, while Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria have reported probable cases2 and Gabon has not reported further cases since 2021.

Can I travel to South Africa without yellow fever vaccine? ›

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE REQUIREMENTS

South Africa considers a one-time dose of yellow fever vaccine (properly documented with an ICVP) to be good for the life of the traveler. Any traveler not meeting this requirement can be refused entry to South Africa or quarantined for up to 6 days.

Which three general conditions are contraindications to yellow fever vaccine? ›

Contraindications to receiving YF vaccine include age <6 months, hypersensitivity to vaccine components, and various forms of altered immunity (including symptomatic HIV infection or HIV infection with severe immunosuppression).

Where is yellow fever most common? ›

The yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers.

How long is the vaccination certificate valid? ›

Your proof of vaccination is valid for 270 days after your primary series vaccination(s).

When are you considered unvaccinated? ›

Unvaccinated: those who have not received any dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Individuals are not considered to have completed the primary series until two weeks have passed since receiving their final dose because of the time required for the body to build protection.

How long is the vaccine valid? ›

Once the booster shot is received, the pass will remain valid for a total of 270 days. However, even though the vaccination certificates' validity has been shortened, the authorities highlighted that those who have received their last dose within the last 270 days will still be permitted entry to the country.

How does yellow fever affect the brain? ›

Two very rare side effects associated with the yellow fever vaccine are inflammation of the brain (meningoencephalitis) and organ failure (viscerotropic disease). People over 60 years of age are at a small risk of these rare side effects, and people with thymus disorders are at increased risk of viscerotropic disease.

What are 5 facts about yellow fever? ›

Other common... read more spread by mosquitoes.
  • You get yellow fever from being bitten by an infected mosquito.
  • Mosquitoes in tropical areas of central Africa, Central America, and South America carry yellow fever.
  • It causes headache, dizziness, muscle aches, and fever.
  • Sometimes, your skin and eyes turn yellow (jaundice.

What is the death rate of yellow fever? ›

20% to 50% of infected persons who develop severe disease die. Yellow fever virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus mosquitoes.

How is yellow fever diagnosed? ›

Laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever is generally accomplished by testing of serum to detect virus-specific IgM and neutralizing antibodies. Sometimes the virus can be found in blood samples taken early in the illness.

Is yellow fever a bacteria or virus? ›

Yellow fever (YF) is an African mosquito-borne infection of primates. It is caused by a virus of the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. In its natural habitat, it is transmitted between monkeys by forest-dwelling primatophilic Aedes mosquitoes.

Who is most at risk for yellow fever? ›

infants aged less than 9 months; pregnant women – except during a yellow fever outbreak when the risk of infection is high; people with severe allergies to egg protein; and. people with severe immunodeficiency due to symptomatic HIV/AIDS or other causes, or who have a thymus disorder.

What's another name for yellow fever? ›

Yellow fever
Other namesYellow jack, yellow plague, bronze john
A TEM micrograph of yellow fever virus (234,000× magnification)
SpecialtyInfectious disease
SymptomsFever, chills, muscle pain, headache, yellow skin
10 more rows

Is yellow fever a hepatitis? ›

Yellow fever gets its name from two of its most obvious symptoms: fever and yellowing of the skin. The yellowing occurs because the disease causes liver damage, hepatitis.

› Newsroom › Fact sheets › Detail ›


Yellow fever

https://www.who.int › Newsroom › Fact sheets › Detail
https://www.who.int › Newsroom › Fact sheets › Detail
WHO fact sheet about yellow fever, an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. It provides key facts and information on signs and sy...
What is the treatment for yellow fever? How can people reduce the chance of getting infected with yellow fever virus? What should I do if I think a family membe...
The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Illness ranges from a fever w...

What is yellow fever vaccination certificate? ›

Yellow fever Certificate- Only WHO recommended yellow fever card is to be used. This certificate is valid only if the vaccine or prophylaxis has been approved by the World Health Organization.

Can I take yellow fever vaccine twice? ›

For most people, a single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and a booster dose of the vaccine is not needed. However, travelers going to areas with ongoing outbreaks may consider getting a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine if it has been 10 years or more since they were last vaccinated.

How long is yellow fever vaccine good for? ›

A single dose provides lifelong protection for most people. The vaccine is a live, weakened form of the virus given as a single shot. Vaccine is recommended for people aged 9 months or older and who are traveling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever virus in Africa and South America.

Can I travel to Africa without yellow fever vaccine? ›

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE REQUIREMENTS

Any traveler not meeting this requirement can be refused entry to South Africa or quarantined for up to 6 days.

Who is exempt from yellow fever vaccination? ›

If you are aged 60 years or older and are travelling to countries where there is a low potential for exposure to yellow fever you should not have yellow fever vaccine . In these instances, due to a higher risk of life-threatening side effects in this age group, yellow fever vaccine is not recommended.

Is yellow fever still around in 2022? ›

Description of outbreaks

Of these nine countries, six continue to report confirmed cases of yellow fever with ongoing transmission in 2022, while Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria have reported probable cases2 and Gabon has not reported further cases since 2021.

Should people over 65 get the yellow fever vaccine? ›

Is yellow fever vaccine recommended for people 60 years and older who will be traveling to areas with risk for yellow fever? People aged ≥60 years may be at increased risk for serious adverse events (serious disease or, very rarely, death) following vaccination, compared with younger persons.

Are there side effects of yellow fever vaccine? ›

Reactions to yellow fever vaccine are generally mild and include headaches, muscle aches, and low-grade fevers. Rarely, people develop severe, sometimes life-threatening reactions to the yellow fever vaccine, including: Allergic reaction, including difficulty breathing or swallowing (anaphylaxis)

Can I take antibiotics after yellow fever vaccine? ›

Not usually. For most kids, taking antibiotics for a mild illness (like an ear infection) shouldn't keep them from getting their vaccinations on schedule. Antibiotics do not affect the ingredients in vaccines or cause a bad reaction in a child who has just been vaccinated.

Does yellow fever still exist? ›

The yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers.

Who is most at risk for yellow fever? ›

infants aged less than 9 months; pregnant women – except during a yellow fever outbreak when the risk of infection is high; people with severe allergies to egg protein; and. people with severe immunodeficiency due to symptomatic HIV/AIDS or other causes, or who have a thymus disorder.

Can you enter country without yellow fever vaccine? ›

If you have travelled through a yellow fever risk country, and you do not have a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate, you risk being refused entry into many countries or may be required to be vaccinated upon arrival.

Do you need proof of vaccines for International? ›

If you are a non-U.S. citizen who is a nonimmigrant (not a U.S. citizen, U.S. national, lawful permanent resident, or traveling to the United States on an immigrant visa), you will need to show proof of being fully vaccinated against COVID-19 before you travel by air to the United States from a foreign country.

Do foreigners need to be vaccinated? ›

Air Travel: All non-U.S. citizen, non-U.S. immigrants traveling to the United States by air are required to show proof of being fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Only limited exceptions apply. Learn more about this requirement and accepted vaccines.

Videos

1. Ask the Expert: Yellow Fever
(VOA Africa)
2. EYE webinar: Preparedness, readiness & response planning for yellow fever outbreaks in urban areas
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3. Vaccine passports: An upgrade to an old concept
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4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs advises travelers to check for required vaccines
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5. Yellow Fever : Patient Education - Transmission, Signs & Symptoms, Vaccination
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6. Yellow Fever - Explained
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